Daily Archives: May 10, 2012
The brain uses submodalities as a medium to represent feelings.
Our experience of the world is acquired through the data gathered by our five senses (sight, sound, taste, smell and touch) and the interpretations of the data by our brains. However, that is not all there is to it. Our interpretations of the data are also affected by submodalities.
What are NLP submodalities?
NLP submodalities simply are the manner in which we internally re-present the data gathered by our senses. When the manner of re-presenting the data is different, the experience of it is also changed. So ultimately, the experience you have of something is not so much due to what you see, hear or feel, but rather how you re-present it internally, or in other words what your submodalities of those experiences are.
You can change the feelings and level of intensity of an experience by altering the submodalities you associate to it. Whether you feel happy, sad, excited or bored about an experience is because it is affected by the submodalities you associate to that experience.
Think of NLP submodalities as blueprints or codes of your experience. We have different submodalities for different feelings. When you run a certain submodalities, you will feel a particular experience. When you run this submodality you will feel happy. When you run another, you’ll feel sentimental and so on.
Ok great, how do I know what my submodalities are like?
As mentioned earlier, submodalities are the way we re-present data gathered. This means how we re-present something that we have seen, heard, feel and smell internally in our minds.
Example of the different submodalities of re-presenting what we see (visual) internally is the brightness of image, the size, color, movement etc. So if we visually replay an incident in our minds and make it very bright, colorful & large as compared against the real experience, it may make the experience more intense or less intense or totally change the feelings. It all depends on a person’s individual submodalities blueprint.
For auditory (sound) submodalities, it will be made up things like what the tone, volume, pitches or the sound is represented internally. Whereas kinesthetic submodalities are like the type of sensation felt (warm, cold etc.), movement of the sensation and at which part of the body is it felt.
How do I use NLP submodalities?
NLP submodalities can be used to change how you feel about a past incident, an anticipated future incident or even your current state. Here is how to do it:
1. First of all we discover your submodalities blueprint – visual, auditory and kinesthetic – for the desired response that you want (e.g. happy, excited, neutral, calm, passionate etc.).
Find out what submodalities you run internally whenever you feel happy, excited, creative, focused etc. Each of us has a unique submodalities blueprint for different feelings.
To find out what your blueprint is, do the following. Think of a past experience when you were happy, Re-live that experience and replay that memory in your head. As you do that and as you feel happy, note down the submodalities (visually, auditory and kinesthetically) associated to that happy memory. Do that by going through the list of submodalities questions below and recording the attributes for as many as possible.
So for example you may find out that when you re-run that memory, the image is large, bright, and colorful and you felt a fuzzy feeling near your heart.
It practice can be done by yourself, however it is easier to get someone help you. That way, you can fully concentrate on re-living your experience and picking up the submodalities attributes while your partner can ask you the questions from the list and record down your blueprint.
2. Next, after recording down the blueprint of the submodalities, internally re-run any experience but this time when re-presenting the incident in your head, deliberately change it to the submodalities attributes identified earlier.
So using the earlier example, start replaying the memory as usual then deliberately make the image of the memory bright, large and colorful. You will find that happy feelings with arise as you do that. Change the visual, sounds and feelings (kinesthetic) to align it to the submodalities blueprint that you identified.
When you change the submodalities of an experience to align it with the submodalities blueprint of a particular feeling, you will give the experience that feeling.
List of submodalities
Here is a list of NLP submodalities. When finding out your blueprint, use this list as a guide.
Color: Is it in color or black & white? Are the colors vivid or washed out? Is it full color spectrum?
Brightness: Is it brighter or darker than normal? What is the degree of brightness?
Contrast: Is it high contrast or low contrast?
Focus: Is the image sharp or fuzzy?
Texture: Is the texture of the image smooth or rough?
Detail: Are there foreground and background details? Do you see the details as part of a whole or do you have to shift focus to see them?
Size: How big is the image? (Specific size)
Distance: How far is the image? (Specific)
Shape: What is the shape or the picture? Square, round, rectangular?
Border: Is there a border to the image? Does the border have a color? How thick is it?
Location: Where is the image located in space?
Movement: Is it a movie or still picture? How fast is the movement, faster or slower than normal? Is the image stable? What direction does the image move to?
Association/Disassociation: Do you see yourself or do you see the event as if you were there?
Perspective: From what perspective do you see it? (For disassociated) do you see yourself from front, back, left or right?
Proportion: Are the sizes of the things in the image in proportion to one another? Are there larger or smaller than life?
Dimension: Is the image 3D or flat?
Singular/Plural: Do you see one image or more than one? Do you see them together or one after the other?
Location: Where does the sound originate? Do you hear it from inside or outside?
Pitch: High or low pitched? Higher or lower than normal?
Tonality: What is the tonality?
Melody: Is it monotone or melodic?
Volume: How loud is it?
Tempo: Fast or slow?
Rhythm: Does it have a beat?
Mono/Stereo: Do you hear it on one side or both sides?
Intensity: How strong is the sensation?
Quality: How would you describe it? Tingling, warm, cold, relaxed, tense?
Location: Where do you feel it in your body?
Movement: Is there movement in the sensation? Is the movement continuous or does it come in waves?
Direction: Where does the sensation start? Where does it move it? How (in what direction) does it move?
Speed: Is it a slow progression or does it move in a rush?
A way to mitigate this problem and to have a greater impact is to combine NLP submodalities with NLP anchoring techniques. First use submodalities to bring yourself to a peak state then anchor that state. Submodalities and anchoring are complement each other and is very powerful when used together.NLP submodalities are a very powerful technique. Just by changing the submodalities, you can change the feelings and intensity of any situation. However on the down side, you need to deliberately run your blueprint in your mind. This may not be ideal in certain situations especially when there is the presence of other people around you.
To YOUR Continued Success,
NLP Anchoring Techniques
NLP anchoring is one of the most popular NLP techniques out there because of it’s power and immediate impact. With it you can choose to deliberately put yourself in any chosen state such as happiness, energetic, confident, cheerful, creative, calm etc. in the blink of an eye.
The term NLP anchors came about by liking the impact of the technique to that of a ship’s anchor. What is the use of a ship anchor? It is to keep a ship in place when it is not sailing. This is to prevent the ocean waves from pushing the ship away. The anchor locks the ship in a specific location.
In the same way, NLP anchors does to us what a ship anchor does to a ship. It keeps us in a certain place (or rather a certain state for a more accurate depiction). By setting up NLP anchors to different states/mood, whenever we trigger that anchor we will immediately be brought to that state.
How does NLP anchoring works?
Ever heard of Russian physiologist & psychologist Ivan Pavlov? He is most well known for his findings on human and animal conditioning. While doing a research on dogs’ digestion, he discovered this phenomenon. When it came to meal time, Pavlov would use bells to call his dogs to the food. After repeating this numerous times, he found that even without any food, the dogs would salivate from hearing the sound of the bell.
By doing so, Pavlov associated the ringing sound of the bell to food. And the numerous repetitions have conditioned the dogs to respond to the ringing bell just like how they respond to food.
This is how NLP anchoring works. By conditioning responses to unique NLP anchors, we are able to deliberately get into specific states just by triggering the unique NLP anchor. Just like Pavlov’s dogs.
So NLP anchors are really a stimulus for us to get into whatever states we want. Similarly as Pavlov uses the ringing bell sound to act as a stimulus, with NLP anchoring, we can set certain anchors to act as the stimulus to certain states. And after many repetitions, the association between the NLP anchor and the state will be conditioned.
How do I set NLP anchors?
The premise of setting NLP anchors is basically the same as Pavlov and his dogs. You set an NLP anchor by associating a unique trigger to a certain state. When in that state, trigger a unique anchor to associate the anchor and the state together.
After repeating that process numerous times, that state will be conditioned to the anchor. Subsequently when you trigger that anchor later on, it will bring you to that state.
Here’s an example. When you are in happy state, anchor that feeling to a unique trigger, let’s say a light pinch on the palm of your left hand. Repeat that process numerous times. Once it is conditioned, each time you pinch your left palm you will be in a state of happiness.
The steps below are the way to set NLP anchors. Let’s say you want to set an anchor for happiness.
1. Get yourself into a happy state. Think of a past experience when you were happy. Construct happy thoughts and images. Visualize yourself and your loved ones smiling, laughing etc.
2. At the peak of your state, at the most intense feeling happiness, fire off a unique anchor. Let’s say to pinch your left palm. Fire off the anchor a few more times (means pinching your palm a few more times) as long as you are still in that peak state.
3. Change to a neutral state. Break your state by standing up, moving around, shaking yourself out of it. Then repeat the process again. After numerous repetitions, the state will be anchored into you.
A fairly simple process although getting into the desired state in the first place may prove to be a problem for some people. The best way to get into the desired state would be to remember and re-live the memory of past experiences when you were in that state. When there isn’t any relevant past experiences, constructing images or sounds of situations with that experience may help.
Another NLP method may help to get you into a desired state as well. NLP submodalities involves mapping the blueprint of feelings & states, so that whenever you run the blueprint, it will get you into that state.
Your anchors can be a touch at a specific area, a pinch, pressure (pushing in), saying a word or making a sound, looking at a certain image, listening to a sound, a certain music, song, ring a bell etc. It can be anything that our sensory cells can pick up.
However a point to note is that anchors that are made of any type of physical touch is usually a stronger compared against the sounds or visual triggers because biologically a physical touch or pressure has a stronger sensory impact on the body.
The effectiveness of an NLP anchor that you set depends on the following ;
• The intensity of the state – the stronger the intensity the better. Likewise if you set the anchor in a low intensity state, the effect will weak.
• Timing of the anchor – The timing of triggering the anchor is just as important. To be most effective, only trigger the anchor at the peak moment of the state. At it’s most intense moment.
• Uniqueness of the anchor – Make sure your anchor is unique. Something that you don’t normally do, see or hear everyday. For example actions like scratching, snapping your fingers or clapping hands are pretty common and we do it quite often. Use something really unique which isn’t part of your daily routine or gestures.
• Number of repetitions – Naturally the more repetitions you make, the more conditioned the anchor becomes. So make sure you do enough repetitions to make it conditioned.
Advanced NLP anchoring
Moving forward from the basic anchoring technique, in the more advanced NLP anchoring technique we involve 2 anchors. There are 2 ways to use this technique ;
• 2 positive anchors can be paired up together so that the 2 strong states will be integrated together. This is called Integrating Anchors.
• 1 positive and 1 negative anchor are paired up. This is done to chain the negative anchor to the positive one. By doing so, whenever you start to feel the negative state it will flow to the positive state. This is called chaining anchors.
Here is the process for integrating anchors.
1. Using the same method as above, get yourself into a desired state #1.
2. At the peak of the state, fire off a unique anchor, anchor #1.
3. Break your state by standing up, moving around, shaking yourself out of it.
4. Repeat a few times.
5. Now repeat the first 4 steps with another state and anchor. (state #2 and anchor #2)
6. Integration. Get into state #1 & fire anchor #1. While experiencing that state fire anchor #2. Let the 2 experiences mix and watch and listen to everything that happens as those two experiences combine to make you even stronger and better.
This can be used for example in integrating energy and creativity together so that you can perform even better in your job.
Chaining anchors can be used to bring yourself from a negative state that you usually feel to a positive one. For example you usually get upset when stuck in traffic jam. By chaining anchors, you can chain the state of calmness to it so that the next time you are stuck in traffic, you instead of being upset you will be calm.
Here is how to chain anchors using the example above;
1. Get yourself into a calm and relaxed state.
2. At the peak of the state, fire off anchor #1.
3. Break state and repeat steps a few times.
4. Now visualize yourself stuck in traffic. Experience the unhappiness and feeling upset.
5. Fire off anchor #2 at the peak of the state. 6. Break state and repeat a few times.
7. Now chain both anchors together. Start by visualizing yourself in traffic, then fire off anchor #2. Visualize yourself as you start to feel upset because of the traffic (fire off anchor #1) suddenly you feel a calmness and relaxed feeling.
In chaining anchors, make sure that your negative anchor is not too intense. Your positive anchor must be stronger than the negative anchor. Or else the stronger negative anchor will overpower the positive anchor instead and turn it negative.
Going from here
That’s about it for NLP anchoring. Practice makes perfect. The best way is to have someone who has mastered it physically guide you through it. Nevertheless you can follow the guidelines above and experiment with it. The good thing is that if you are doing it right, you will immediately know it because of it’s impact. So there’s no guessing whether you got it right or not.
Take some time to master it. As long as you follow the steps and take note of the 4 keys to effective anchoring, you’ll be fine.
We base NLP reframing on the idea that all meaning depends on your point of view. To reframe something is to change its meaning by putting it in a different setting, context or frame.
For instance, a nasty experience can seem funny when put in a long- term frame. It is one of the most useful NLP techniques.
The meaning of any event depends on how we frame it. When we change the frame we change the meaning and with it our responses and behaviors. For instance if someone goes to a party dressed as a skeleton the meaning is different depending on whether it is Halloween or a funeral. My response to someone slipping on a banana skin is different as an observer than as a victim.
Reframing is not new. Many fables and fairy tales include behaviors change their meaning when the frames changes. The different looking chick seems to be an ugly duckling. He has been comparing himself to all the other ducks, and now he is a beautiful swan.
Humor and creativity
Reframing often appears in jokes. What seems to be one thing shifts and becomes something else. The set up takes you down a path and the punch line sends you somewhere else.
Reframing is part of creativity: it’s about taking an ordinary event or thing and putting it in a new frame that is useful or enjoyable. The inventor of Velcro noticed how difficult it was to get burrs out of his clothing. He decided this could be useful for attaching things together.
Context reframing – a different point of view
The basis of NLP reframing using context is the NLP Presuppositions that every behavior is useful in some situation. By thinking of a useful context, you can change your response to that behavior.
When you try to get a friend to think about things differently, see another point of view law or consider other factors, you are trying to reframe events to get a different response. Putting a positive spin on ideas in politics is a typical use of reframing.
Content reframing – positive intent and purpose
Another NLP presupposition is that all behavior has a positive intent. Finding the positive intention of a behavior is the other kind of NLP reframing. Do you believe that all behavior has a positive intent?
Generally, you do not intend to harm people with your words or your action, even if the effect is different. Where you or someone else did intend harm to another, there is still a positive intention for the self. That is to feel safe, powerful, in control, prevent the person doing something again, or as punishment.
In evolutionary terms, our brains don’t do anything without some underlying purpose. Our brain’s functioning is always of benefit overall to the survival of the species. We might feel it isn’t acting in our short-term personal interest sometimes, but there is always a purpose for our behavior and responses.
For example, finding that the positive intention of a teen’s rebellious action is to become an independent, capable adult can change the way both parent, and teen views that behavior.
The Six Step Reframe NLP Technique
Bandler and Grinder developed the six-step reframe technique from their study of Milton Erickson (ideomotor signals) and Virginia Satir’s work with parts. They included it in their book Frogs into Princes.
When we are young, we try out different behaviors and some of them work. We keep the ones that work, even when times change and those responses may not be the most useful ones. Throwing a tantrum at 4 might get us what we want, at 44 it probably won’t work so well.
Behind every behavior is a positive intention – this is one of the basic NLP presuppositions. Motives drive behavior. Our brains do nothing without some (usually unconscious) purpose.
To me the six step reframe is a powerful and underestimated NLP technique.
Identify a troubling behavior or response, something you would rather not do or feel.
Establish communication with the part creating the unwanted behavior or response. Ask if it would be willing to communicate consciously. This communication might be a sensation somewhere in their/your body, a picture, voice or sound. When you get a signal, first thank the part for responding. When we have fought against particular behaviors, they can feel alienated, so it’s useful to be polite.
Find the positive intention. Ask the part “What do you want? What positive thing are you trying to do for me? The key here is to recognize the difference between the parts intention and the way it is going about getting it Have you ever tried to be helpful and the person misunderstood your intention and got annoyed? How does it make you feel? Are you likely to help a second time? Our unconscious parts feel the same. Here they are doing the best they can to achieve something for you. Is there thanks or even appreciation? We might have a long history of fighting and shaming this response. If a neighbor repeatedly told you what a worthless lazy bum you were for not mowing your lawn more often, would it inspire you to mow? I have no idea why many of us think shaming works to change behavior. It doesn’t work for me. Assuming that this aspect of self has a positive intention can create rapport and therefore makes it more willing to cooperate.
Ask for help from their/your creative part to create three alternative ways to get the intended outcome.
Have the part evaluate these new choices. Are they acceptable? Will they be as good as or better than the previous behavior? It needs to be willing to try them out for the next month or longer if appropriate. The key here is negotiation. If the part with the unwanted behavior is not happy with these alternatives, it is unlikely to give them a go. If you have ever agreed to something because you were bullied into it, you’ll know how important willing commitment is. If the alternatives are not acceptable, go back to step 4 for better choices.
Check for objections with other parts with an ecology check and future pacing. When we change behaviors, we can affect other people and aspects of ourselves. Even changes we think are fabulous have unintended consequences. We get our new car, but our camping gear doesn’t fit in the boot. If there are objections, put them through the same process from step 2 what is the positive intention etc.?
Mind lines: lines for changing minds – L. Michael Hall and Bobby Bodenhamer
Mind lines connect language to things and events that carry meaning. There are seven basic mind-shifting directions and 26 mind line patterns, which reframe reality.
Check out Mind-lines: Lines For Changing Minds at Amazon
Robert Dilts identified 18 key reframing patterns in Richard Bandler (learned from Virginia Satir, Fritz Perls, Milton Ericksonand Frank Farrelly), and called them “Sleight of Mouth” patterns.
Michael Hall’s mind lines model sorts and extend these patterns into seven categories based on his Meta states model.
Language powerfully affects mind and emotional states. Although words are almost totally powerless to change our external reality, they have almost complete power over our internal reality. A tiny idea can start a revolution or trigger depression.
Framing and Reframing
We can change our perceived reality by using the process of framing and reframing. Nothing inherently means anything; it is only our associations.
Bandler and Grinder called the Meta model and Milton model change patterns reframing. Every mental image has both an internal content and format and an external environment or context
Content — inside the box. Details of the external behavior and the internal states. How else can I view this? What other perspectives could I use? What are some viewpoints others might use?
Context — outside the box. Setting a higher frame on the belief or ideas i.e. Meta stating. Out framing the external behavior or the internal state with some other concept, ideal meaning. In what context would this behavior be useful?
Content reframe changes the meaning of an experience. A context reframe changes the perception of the problem while keeping the meaning
The one who sets the frame governs the experience. Someone or some idea always sets the frame. Awareness of the meaning process gives us control over it.
Sleights of mouth patterns are about persuading others and ourselves conversationally. The model, based on the Meta model, persuades by transforming meaning. We also use them to repel ideas and maintain our beliefs
A conversational reframe is a quick way to redirect our brain to a new point of view. It avoids resistance
Beliefs often relate to “shoulds”. They are our assumptions about causation and meaning. They confirm our models of the world. Beliefs become organizing frames of reference that allow us to focus on what’s important. They are the validated thoughts that encode our sense of reality that get manifested in behavior.
A belief has at least two levels of thoughts
A set of representations about something
Thoughts of confirmation and validation about these representations. You can think all kinds of things without believing them. You cannot change a belief merely by changing the submodalities, it needs conviction. Beliefs feel real and act as commands to the nervous system. The “yes” validates the thoughts.
The Mind Line Patterns
De-framing enables us to take meaning apart by testing stability. We want to expose the faulty logic and unuseful consequences
- Make it more specific. We create beliefs by generalizing, deleting and distorting. They depend on vagueness. We can use the Meta model to test the reality of the belief or meaning.
- Sequence – examine the logic and structure. If the logic doesn’t hold, it messes up the program. We can say this means that, or this causes that.
Here we are changing the meaning inside the box by saying that an event, experience, person or idea is not one thing but another. We call them new names, we redefine them, and we substitute one term for another.
- Content reframing – redefine the external behavior – call it a different name
- Content reframing – redefine the internal state. What the internal state really means is … What the internal state really causes is …
- And 6. Reflexive reframing Here we are turning either the external behavior or internal state to self or listener. The purpose is to reality test the idea or belief For example, “saying mean things makes you a bad person”. “What a mean thing to say.”
Here we are reversing meaning in order to create fresh meanings. How is the whole thing the opposite of what you thought? When a belief becomes a frame of reference, we move through life searching for evidence for it. You can find evidence to support just about anything.
- Counter examples here we are reality-testing beliefs by examining at what times or places it doesn’t occur. “I lack energy”. To do what? At what times, according to what standards?
Here we are learning to play with the concept of time, consequences, intentions and causation.
- Positive prior intention framing Invite the person to find more effective ways to accomplish the positive intention. By guessing the positive intent of people’s behavior, it shifts attention from negative behaviors.
- Positive prior cause framing We are usually skilled in identifying negative things that cause us to do things – blaming and justifying
- First outcome framing Discovering the future consequences of our behavior. This is a more confrontational stance
- Outcome of outcome framing Changing our time frames alter meaning. What will the behavior could cause over time?
- Eternity framing How does the behavior fit in the overall picture of your whole life? How will this look 50 or 100 years from now? The small size of our fear in a larger perspective
Context reframing is Meta stating. In what situation is the behavior useful?
- Model of the world framing is the ability to hold our maps more tentatively. Notice what happens when you say “this seems like my X”. Or how long have you thought this car belonged to you? Our internal representations of things are not the things.
- Criteria and values When we reframe something as valuable it allows us to reorganize ourselves in terms of that value. You can texture the state of anger so it becomes something valuable and useful, for example respectful anger. “Stress causes me to eat chocolate”. “Is avoiding stress more important than being healthy?”
- “Allness” or universality framing What if everyone did this all the time? This pattern pushes the belief to its limits. We typically expressed beliefs in absolute terms. “Allness” words don’t make room for exceptions.
- Necessity framing We typically use one particular style to frame our world.
Necessity – obligation and force (have to, must, ought to)
Possibility – opportunities and desire (get to, want to, desire to)
Impossibility – lack of possibilities or options (can’t, won’t, it’s impossible)
- We can use Meta Model questions to challenge this framing. What would happen if you did? What stops you?
- Identity framing There is no such thing as sameness. We live in a world of processes; nothing is static. Can you describe self without using the to be (am, is, are) verbs? Whatever we identify with sets a self-organizing frame. For instance “I am an accountant — begin to see yourself as only that”
- Framing all other abstractions What principle would empower this person? What idea will make this belief more empowering?
The unreality frame uses words such as seems, appears, thinks, and looks like. These words imply doubt and loosen up our beliefs.
The self and other frame emphasizes the word “you”. It suggests that your model of the world is different from my model of the world. So for you it seems that being late means I don’t care?
The tonal emphasis frame emphasizes different words to change the meaning. “So you think being late means I don’t care?” is different from “So you think being late means I don’t care?”
In English we ask a question with a rising inflection at the end of a sentence. A command has falling inflection. “We are going to breakfast?” Is different from “we are going to breakfast”. You can embed a question or command in a sentence so it is received unconsciously.
Time Zones frame distinguishes current situations that are now occurring from situations in the future or past. For example “have you always thought about it this way?”
The realization frame acknowledges the changes we make. We often don’t realize the difference our efforts make, we discount our achievements and progress. How does it feel to realize this?
- Ecology framing is this belief useful, empowering, limiting, balancing, enhancing? Does this way of thinking serve you?
Analogous framing – reframing using Metaphors and Stories
- Metaphor framing Involves conveying a message in terms of something else. Telling a story that has a similar structure to the problem. Stories are less threatening than advice.
Additional mind lines
- Both and framing Instead of either/or, we find a middle ground that includes both options
- Pseudo word framing A” real” word has to function as a symbol of something. Failure is some vague thing to avoid. You can fail but not experience the nominalized entity of failure. Is it a legitimate concept you want in your world?
- Negation framing Command negation – do not X. You first have to represent it and then make it go away. Don’t think of pink elephants dancing in the ocean. You can also frame a thing as invisible by creating and setting a negation frame. This can loosen up beliefs.
- Possibility and “as if” framing What would it be like if? If it were possible, what would you be thinking, feeling, doing?
- Systemic and probability framing Linear thinking enables us to sort and separate, sequence and program so we can create models and step-by-step procedures. Non-linear thinking enables simultaneous information. It connects previously separate and fragmented elements
- Decision framing We often theorize, analyze, diagnose and talk but don’t decide and take action to do something. Deciding literally means cutting one thing from another. When we say “yes” to something we are saying no to another, we cut off our options. We cut away what is important from what is unimportant. A clear-cut decision empowers us to act on our decisions. We can also stand back to look at what decisions are currently driving our actions.
Using Mind Lines (Conversational Reframes)
When you offer someone a mind line, you are playing with meanings. You therefore need sufficient rapport, pacing and trust and respect. What are the benefits of the belief? What difficulties and limitations has it created?
Is the difficulty simple or complex? A phobia is a simple anchored response. Low self-esteem is complex with associations, levels and meanings.
Problem states can undermine and limit our effectiveness. Make sure you reframe your own stuff.