Monthly Archives: February 2015

The differences between Native or Indigenous People and Non-Natives

Lisa Christiansen
A critical difference between Native and Non-Natives is our reaction to anesthetics during surgery. Some of us have a very difficult time waking up, or may exhibit what can be considered unusual and even violent behavior in recovery. Frequently when we finally do begin to come around, we are often quite nauseous much longer than others. These reactions to the drugs used during surgery are just another example of our lack of tolerance to medications and chemicals. IMPORTANT If you are going into surgery, please make your doctor aware of your race and that complications could occur because of it.

Published in the Oxford Molecular Biology and Evolution: Many Native children are born with extra teeth, I was and my children were, which most likely will need to be removed and braces used to fix the remaining ones. I had 6 extra teeth that were extracted and I wore braces for 5 years.
Natives also have an extra bone in their feet. My feet were x-rayed when I was a child and the Doctor told my mother something was wrong with me, that I had a bone that didn’t belong where it was. He had no idea and neither did we, that most Native people have this extra bone in their feet. I had my feet broken and was told I needed leg braces. SVT (supra-ventricular tachycardia,) sinus tachycardia and other heart issues are common among native americans, both of my daughters, grandmother, ancestors all have either SVT (supra-ventricular tachycardia) or sinus tachycardia. I have sinus tachycardia that is well under control, my daughter Ciarre is having ablation surgery in march to correct her SVT.

The suppression of the Native Americans and the decimation of their culture is a black page in the history of the United States. The discrimination and injustices towards this ancient race, which had lived on the American continent long before the European conquerors came to this land, are still present to this day despite the efforts of different groups and organizations trying to restore the justice. The destruction of their culture is one of the most shameful aspects of our history, the extent of the damage that was done is still being down-played and denied entry into textbooks and history-lessons to this day.

The origin and history of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas have been studied for years by researchers from different countries, and a recent DNA study showed that the genealogy of the western aboriginals is one of the most unique in the world. The question of whether Native Americans derived from a single Asian population or from a number of different populations has been a subject of research for decades. Now, having compared the DNA samples from people of modern Native American and Eurasian groups, an international team of researchers concluded on the validity of the single ancestral population theory.

The study follows up on earlier research that found a unique variant of a genetic marker in the DNA of modern descendants of Native Americans. “While earlier studies have already supported this conclusion, what’s different about our work is that it provides the first solid data that simply cannot be reconciled with multiple ancestral populations,” said Kari Britt Schroeder of the University of California, one of the authors of the study.

As a result of the previous research, the so-called “9-repeat allele” (or variant) was found in all of the 41 Native American and Asian (from the western side of the Bering Strait) populations that were sampled. At the same time, the allele was absent in all 54 of the Eurasian, African and Oceanian groups that were also sampled in the study.

The researchers supposed that the distribution of the allele was due to the fact that all these ethnic groups (modern Native Americans, Greenlanders and western Beringians) derived from a common founder population, which had been isolated from the rest of the Asian continent thousands of years prior to their migration to the Americas.

This explanation was persuasive enough; however, there was no strong evidence to support it. There were two other plausible versions to explain the distribution of the 9-repeat allele among the modern descendants of Native Americans. If the 9-repeat allele had originated as a multiple mutation, its presence in the Americas would not suggest common ancestry. Thus, if there had been more than one ancestral founder population and the 9-repeat allele had been present only in one of them, it could possibly have passed to the other ethnic groups and spread among them. If there also had been a second, beneficial allele located very close to the 9-repeat allele, it would certainly have been carried into new populations. At the same time, long stretches of DNA surrounding the 9-repeat allele would be carried along with the beneficial allele due to the mechanisms of natural selection.

In order to check the validity of this hypothesis, researchers led by Noah Rosenberg of the University of Michigan analyzed DNA samples from people from Asian, Native American, Greenlandic and two western Beringian populations, and found that all the samples with the 9-repeat allele had a distinct pattern of base pairs in short stretches of DNA. As Schroeder noted, “If natural selection had promoted the spread of a neighboring advantageous allele, we would expect to see longer stretches of DNA than this with a similarly distinct pattern. And we would also have expected to see the pattern in a high frequency even among people who do not carry the 9-repeat allele. So we can now consider the positive selection possibility unlikely.” These findings also excluded the multiple mutations theory, because in this case there would have been myriad DNA patterns surrounding the 9-repeat allele.

“Our work provides strong evidence that, in general, Native Americans are more closely related to each other than to any other existing Asian populations, except those that live at the very edge of the Bering Strait,” concluded Schroeder.

The results of the study were published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.

To Be Free You Start By Loving Yourself

Here on the pulse of this new day you may have the grace to look up and out and into your sister’s eyes, into your brother’s face, your country and say simply, very simply with hope good morning. Ever, did you ever, sit down and wonder about what freedom’s freedom would bring it’s so easy to be free you start by loving yourself then those who look like you all else will come naturally… Sometimes the things that may or may not be true are the things you need to believe in the most. That people are basically good; that honor, courage, and virtue mean everything; that power and money, money and power mean nothing; that good always triumphs over evil; and I want you to remember this, that love… true love never dies. You remember that because it doesn’t matter if it’s true or not. The reason you should believe in those things is because those are the things worth believing in, hope lives in believing and faith is believing in what you cannot see…
I pray this prayer with you… Father I come to you for the strength to stand even if it means I stand alone, I pray for forgiveness to all for they know not what they do and I know forgiveness begins with me and it is forgiveness that will set you free and with this gratitude is born, when your heart is filled with gratitude it only has room for God’s everlasting love to live inside giving you the the armor as God’s word as your sword, the holy ghost as the power to command alignment of God’s army of angel warriors to fight the demons that stand against us, and the love of Jesus Christ to embrace us with God’s amazing grace to bring us authentic peace and the strength to remain his humble servant. Amen

Mr Nutella Michele Ferrero dies at age 89 on Saturday February 14, 2015

Mr Nutella Michele Ferrero who became Italy’s wealthiest man with £14.4billion (over 22billion U.S. Dollars) chocolate empire dies at age 89 on Saturday February 14, 2015 after a long illness, Michele Ferrero the world’s wealthiest chocolatier has died aged 89
He died at home in Monaco after months of illness, his company revealed Entrepreneur was Italy’s wealthiest man with net worth of £14.4billion (over 22billion U.S. Dollars)
Death opens question of succession at Ferrero group with £6billion sales.

The death of Italy’s richest man opens the question of succession and potential tie-ups at the family-controlled Ferrero group, which has sales of around £6billion. Mr Ferrero created the chocolate-hazelnut Nutella spread, Ferrero Rocher pralines, Kinder eggs and Tic Tac sweets – turning a provincial chocolate factory into a global empire.
He died at home in Monaco on Valentine’s Day after months of illness, his company revealed.

Italian President Sergio Mattarella led the tributes to the ‘born entrepreneur’ and said he was deeply touched by the death of one of the protagonists of Italian industry.
‘He was always ahead of his time thanks to innovative products and his tenacious and reserved work,’ said Mr Mattarella.
Twitter was flooded with messages from people who thanked Ferrero for ‘sweetening up’ their lives. Mr Ferrero’s net worth of £14.4billion ranked him 31st, the highest of any Italian, on the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, as of February 2015. Forbes magazine described Ferrero as ‘the richest candyman on the planet’, putting him and his family in 30th place on their list of the world’s wealthiest people.

The entrepreneur built the business founded by his parents in the 1940s into one of the world’s biggest confectionery companies.
His father Pietro started making Nutella when cocoa was still rationed during World War II and transformed a small coffee bar in Piedmont, Italy, into a sweets factory in 1946.
With cocoa expensive as Italy rebuilt from war, the company experimented with locally abundant nuts as a substitute ingredient and developed Nutella using a cocoa-hazelnut base.
The first pot of Nutella was made in Alba in northwest Italy in April 1964 and the company produces around 365,000 tonnes of Nutella every year in 11 factories around the world.
Mr Ferrero’s son Giovanni became chief executive of the chocolate empire after his older brother Pietro, the chosen heir, died of a heart attack in 2011 while cycling in South Africa.
In late 2013, Giovanni denied suggestions that the company had been approached by the Swiss-based multinational Nestle, saying Ferrero was not for sale. Industry insiders say he is less interested than his brother was in running the company. Ferrero senior was a man of few words who shunned publicity, turning a local business from the Piedmont region into a global giant.
He had a reputation as a forceful leader, but also as one who maintained generous working conditions and gave back to his community. Until a few years ago, Mr Ferrero commuted by helicopter every day from his Monte Carlo villa to company headquarters in Alba, northwest Italy, to taste and help design new products.

He never let outsiders buy into the company, which his father set up in 1946. The Ferrero group makes Ferrero Rocher, Mon Cheri and Kinder chocolates and employs more than 22,000 workers. The group has an annual turnover of more than 8 billion euros ($9 billion).

In 2013 Forbes estimated that Mr Ferrero and his family were worth $20.4 billion (14.9 billion euros). The group, which toyed with the idea of making a bid for its British rival Cadbury a few years ago, is present in 53 countries.

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